Guarantees of the right to food security between international and national legislation


  • م.م.علاء كامل عبد Diyala University/College of Islamic Sciences Author



Food security


Securing food needs is considered one of the important preparations that the state must make. This is because food is a vital element and considered an important element  in the humans life, also is considered one of the basic fundamentals in preserving human life. The efforts of states to achieve the protection of the human right to food focuses on including this right in legal texts, whether constitutional or international, because the right to food security falls within the economic rights guaranteed by international legislation pertaining to international trade and economic, social and cultural rights. States must work to protect this right from being affected by any elements or factors that may harm the individual or society. An example of such protection is for the state to ensure equality and economic factors in this field, thus ensuring that elements of human existence are not harmed, such as: climate change, desert, and demographic elements related to the increase in population numbers and the expansion of their spread at the expenditure of agricultural lands. There must be solutions that maintain a balance between the increasing population density and arable agricultural areas, as the state must carry out its duty to protect individuals and their rights in terms of food, and to secure their rights, including the right to food security and ensuring it in the quantities that the people might need.




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I. Arabic Dictionaries

Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (2004). Al-Mu’jam Al-Waseet, 4th edition, Al-Shorouk International Library: Cairo.

Al-Johary, Ismail bin Hammad (1979). Al-Sahah Taj Al-Lughah, 2nd Edition. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm lil-Malāyīn.

II. Books

Abdel-Salam, Muhammad Al-Sayed (1998). Food Security for the Arab World. Kuwait: National Council for Culture.

Al-Fatlawi, Suhail Hussain (2011). The United Nations: Aims and Purposes. 1st ed. Amman: Dar Al-Jamaa for Publishing and Distribution.

Al-Ghara, Muhammad Ali (1978). The Problem of Food Production in the Arab World. 1st ed. Kuwait: The World of Knowledge.

Al-Saadi, Shneishil (2012). The Iraqi Economy. 1st ed. Beirut: Lebanon.

Al-Sheikh, Muhammad bin Hamad (2007). Economics of Natural Resources. Riyadh: Dar Al Obeikan for Publishing and Distribution.

Al-Wazzan, Salah (1998). The Development of Arab Agriculture, Reality and Potential. Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.

Asfour, Saad. (1980). Basic Principles of Constitutional Law. Alexandria: Manshaat al-Maarif.

Bassiouni, Mohamed Sharif (2003). International Documents Concerned with Human Rights. Vol.1. Cairo: Dar Al-Shorouk.

Emara, Azza Ibrahim (2009). Food Security and Agricultural Development in Egypt. Cairo.

Gharbi, Fawzia (2010). Arab Agriculture and the Challenges of Arab Food Security. 1st ed. Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.

Hayawi, Nabil Abdel-Rahman (2007). Guarantees of the Constitution. Baghdad: The Legal Library.

Ismail, Muhammad Sadiq (2012). Arab Waters and Future Wars. Cairo: Al-Arabi for Publishing and Distribution.

Jaddou, A. H. (2010). Desertification and Ecosystem Deterioration. 1st ed. Dar Dijla: Amman.

Khidir, K. (2011). Concepts of Modern Politics. 1st ed. Lebanon: The Modern Institution.

Mohamed, Mustafa Sayed (2007). Food Security Crisis. Qatar: Al Jazeera Center for Studies.

Ouda, J., (2014). International Administration Science: The Infrastructure of International Relations. Cairo: Arab Office for Knowledge.

Salah Tahoun, A., (2010). Desertification and Land Uses in Egypt. Cairo: Al-Maktaba Al-Academiya.

Shibli Al-Husainawi, J. M., (2016). The Complete Collection of Health Legislations. 2nd ed. Iraqi Ministry of Health.

Siddiq, Muhammad Fahmy (1993). Lexicon of Food Industries and Nutrition. 1st ed. Cairo: Al-Dar Al-Arabiya for Publishing and Distribution.

III. Theses and Dissertations

Ali, Rabab (2010). “Food Dependency and Arab National Security.” A master’s thesis submitted to the Faculty of Political Science: Middle East University: Amman.

Belkhair, Suhaila (2015). "Ethical Controls for Achieving Food Security in Islam" Master's Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities: University of Martyr Hama Lakhdar: Algeria,.

Mansouri, Reem (2012). "Food Security and Sustainable Development," Master's thesis, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Interpretation Sciences, University of Badji Mokhtar: Algeria.

IV. Articles

Al-Droubi, Rania Thabet (2008). “The Reality of Arab Food Security in Light of International Economic Changes,” Damascus University Journal of Economic and Legal Sciences. 24:1.

Ali, M. F. & A. H. Salman (2014). “A Geographical Study of a Number of Natural and Human Indicators Affecting Iraqi Food Security.” Journal of Geographical Research, College of Education for Girls: University of Kufa, Issue: 19.

Ben Bazza, Youssef (2018) “Determinants and Threats to Food Security in the Arab Region.” Journal of Human and Social Sciences: University of Batna: Algeria, Issue: 38.

Bin Qatata, Khadija (2019). “The Right to Food in the Framework of International Human Rights Law”. Journal of the Researcher for Legal and Political Studies, Abdelhamid Ben Badis University: Algeria, 3:4.

Muhammad, S. K.; W. A. Hussein; H. M. Sabri. (2014). “The Reality of Ration Card and its Impact on Food Security for the Consumer.” Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection: Center for Market Research and Consumer Protection: University of Baghdad, 6:2.

Saad, Ibrahim Ahmed (2011). “The Importance of Investing in Arab Food Security.” Damascus University Journal. Syria. 27:3.

V. Constitutions

Constitution 29 of 1963.

The 1964 Constitution.

The Constitution of the Republic of Iraq in 1970.

The Constitution of the Republic of Iraq of 2005.

VI. Laws and regulations

Public Health Law No. 89 of 1981, amended

Law of Emergency Support for Iraqi Food Security and Development No. 2 of 2022.

Iraqi Food System No. 29 of 1982.

VII. International conventions and global declarations

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

The American Declaration of Human Rights and Duties 1948.

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1966.

The American Convention on Human Rights and Duties 1969.

The Universal Declaration for the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition in 1974.

The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights in 1981.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992.

The Rome Declaration on World Food Security 1996.

The First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Convention for the Protection of International Armed Conflicts 1977.

The amended European Social Charter in 1996.

The protocol attached to the American Convention on Human Rights called (San Salvador) in 1988

The Arab Charter for Human Rights of 2004.

VIII. Websites

-The Crisis in Yemen: Who is Fighting Who: Published on the Arabic BBC NEWS website, available at.

The Arab Human Rights Library, University of Minnesota,

Dorar Al-Iraq website, available at the link: http://wiki.dorar-